Oss – strategically situated
The political and economic situation of North Brabant started to change dramatically after the Dukes of Brabant founded Den Bosch in 1184. They now controlled the total area south of the River Maas, which became the border with Holland in the west and Gelre in the east. The river here at that time was a 20 kilometer wide delta were land and water continuously changed the landscape.This obviously left border claims wide open. Especially the eastern border region was challenged by the Counts of Gelre.
Until that time this river region was loosely governed by a small number of ancient nobility who had evolved after the collapse of the Carolingian Empire. The key players in northeastern Brabant were the Lords of Cuijk, who paid allegiance to the Duke of Brabant and continued their dominant position in this area during the 13th century. They also held properties in the area in and around Oss.
Oss was right on the border of that river delta, only 5 kilometers from the current – dyked – river Maas and when between 1200 and 1280 the Dukes of Brabant built dykes along the river Maas, more permanent settlements could be developed for the scattered farming communities. Oss became a regional settlement developed around of what is now the city centre of the town (De Heuvel – The Hill – approx 6 meters high). Archaeological evidence shows that this ‘hill’ was already heavily used for occupation during the Late Roman period. Before that time several small farming communities existed in the rich pasture lands – dating back to the Bronze Age – just north of the Heuvel .
The expansionist activities by the Dukes in this region caught the wrath of their neighbours the upcoming regional power of the Dukes of Gelre. They resisted the Dukes of Brabant and were able to force them back from the more northern side of the delta, now the river Waal (Tiel was claimed by Brabant, but reclaimed by Gelre) to the southern part now the river Maas. These border claims would lead to a more or less permanent stage of war in this region. While Oss saw a brief period of economic growth in the 14th century for most of the following three hundred years it would be a war ravaged area with ongoing poverty and misery.
However, because of this situation Oss did become a strategic city within the Duchy of Brabant and as such was fortified and received in 1399 its city privileges.
It is within this context that we also need to place the position of the local feudal lords.
Lords of Oss
The early history of the feudal lords of Oss is rather confusing, there are in the 14th and 15th centuries, several important people with the name van Os but it is uncertain if or how these people are related. Also most of the key people never lived in Oss. Much later they became known as the Jonkers van Oss, a name that- thanks to the historian Jan Cunen – has stuck to this family.
The fact that they outright owned a ‘stone house’ in Oss could indicate that they originally were an important family in Oss. As we have seen in other parts of Brabant and elsewhere, newly conquered areas required military oversight and important local families (large farmers, land owners) were often recruited by the Dukes and Counts for that purpose. This process took place in Brabant in the 13th century after the founding of Den Bosch in 1184. It could well be that the van Os family belonged to this group of prominent local citizens in the country side in Brabant who made it to the position of Lords.
Most of the ‘nouveau rich’ of that time needed to make sure that they remained close to the Duke in order to secure their powers and privileges and to expand their wealth and careers, so many built houses in the new capital Den Bosch. So did the Family van Os. A Herman van Os is in 1329 mentioned as the chamberlain of the Duke in 1338 a Herman (possible the same) a steward of the Duke. Some time later his nephew Alart van Oss is mentioned in the same position [x. L’adminsitration Ducal , Mina Martens, Brussels 1954]. They are mentioned as owners of ‘mansio’ in Den Bosch – generen Brabant au moyen ageally this would indicate a stone house on owned property secured with a ditch. This house stood at the Hinthammerstraat, situated just outside the Leuvensepoort – ‘Prison Gate’ and became part of the hospital (Groot ziekengasthuis), already in 1361 part of the property was in the hands of the hospital. This house becomes the property of Alarts son Wedeken.
The Duke in Brabant was in desperate need of military support as the Count of Gelre opposed the expansion of Brabant. We know that Goyart van Os was knighted by the Duke, this must have been in the early part of the 14th century. It is not known if his father Marcelis was also a knight.
Apart from their own ancient landowner rights, they also received several new privileges – given to them in fief by the Duke – most likely for services given to the Duke in relation to the war effort against Gelre. These privileges included fishing and milling rights in and around Oss as well as property rights around Oss and beyond. From the various charters we can conclude that they had properties – among other places – in Oss, Heesch, Den Bosch, Schijndel, Heesch, Drunen, Eerde and St Michelsgestel.
These privileges saw the family increasing their wealth and rising to greater importance which is reflected in several members of this family having prominent position in the City of Den Bosch, at the Court of the Dukes of Brabant and within the Catholic Church.
There are possibly three branches of the Lords or the Knights of Oss with several – be it unclear – linkages between them:
- A native branch with the first known person Marcel (Marcelus, Marcelijs) van Os possibly born around 1270
- A branch originating in Panhedel (Limburg) with a Wilhelm van Panhedel van Oss born in 1235
- A so far unsupported link with the Lords van Heeswijk (1235) with a Hubertus van Heeswijk, carrying the coats of arms of the van Os family. There is a Henrick van Os mentioned in 1238 donating property to the Abbey of Berne (near Heusden) with very strong links to Heeswijk.
Key reasons to suspect that they are linked include the coat of arms (three front facing ox heads with golden horns on a silver sheet) that they all use and some rights (such as fishing, milling and property) that they share.
Originally the name is spelled van Os, van Oss followed later and since the 19thcentury also the spelling van Osch appears.
Lord Goyart van Os
There seems to be one ‘native’ branch (spelled van Os). Based on research from Drs Mechellen Spierings [x. Van Oss in de oudste Bossche Schepensprotocollen, De Brabantse Leeuw 1978, pag.179-186, and Heer Goyart van Os, in De Brabantse Leeuw 1980, blz. 67-68]. Based a calculating that information back would dated this back to approx. 1270. It must have been around this time that a Marcelis van Os was born, but nothing more is known about him. He is mentioned in 1327.
His son Goyart (Godevart) was married to Mechtelt (Spierings suggest possibly van Bronkhorst). Most likely Goyart had been married before with a Dircxke. After Goyart’s death – before 1368 – Mechtelt marries Aernt Heyme.
A charter from 1395 mentions that Goyart had obtained the rights to the tithe of Bronkhorst with the parish of Oss from the Lords of Bronkhorst the brothers Willem and Dirck, Lords of Batenburg. Possibly Goyart had received these tithe when he married Mechtelt. The rights themselves belonged to the Abbey of Echternach.
In 1395, his grandson, another Goyart – the son of Dirck, son of Goyart (see below) – sells his inherited tenth part of the rights to the tithe to Henrick Aert Heyme (a son of the above mentioned Aenrt Heyme). Henrick calls himself Lord of Bronkhorst either because of this transaction or because of the Bronkhorst relationship of Mechtelt.
Another reference to Bronkhorst is that Goyart’s son calls himself Dirck van Steenre. Steenderen is a place close to Doesburg, near Bronkhorst. In the archives of the Fraternity of Our Lady of Doesburg we find a reference to the deceased Dirck van Steenre.
Goyart became a page and was a few years later knighted, he is mentioned in the charters of Den Bosch as a knight and a feudal lord of the Duke of Brabant. In 1345 he received the fishing rights on the Old Maas (a closed off arm of the river that originated after the dykes were built alongside the main bed of the river) under the villages Kessel and Maren, given to him in fief by the Duke (perhaps for certain services delivered to him in relation with the war with Gelre (?). He had to pay for this privilege four guilder, or a pike of the same value! He also had the rights of a horse driven mill in Oss. These rights were passed on to his son Marcelis.
Research from historian Henk Buijks has provided further details on Goyart. [2. De Werkende Mens, 16th edition, autumn 2010, p39] Already in 1340 he had established the Table of the Holy Ghost (poor relief) and he held the right to appoint its wards. This service must have been desperately needed during the destruction of the town in the Gelre wars.His son becomes in 1381 the provost superior. This privilege stayed within the family until the French Period [3. Jan Cunen, Geschiedenis van Oss, p 165].
Perhaps at the time of becoming a page he founded a chapel in the church of Oss as well as an altar dedicated to Our Lady (Onze Lieve Vrouwe). He receives – in fief – the Jus Patronatus (right to appoint the priests) for the Church from the Abbot of Echternach and as such he also becomes a vassal of the Abbott. Furthermore he established here the Confraternity of Our Lady (Onze Lieve Vrouwe Broederschap), most likely inspired by a similar organisation that had been established in Den Bosch. He dedicated a second altar to the the Holy Cross, Maria Magdalene and Saint Agatha.
Goyart had 8 children:
- Marcelis knight, see separate chapter below.
- Gielis, knight, priest and canon in Aachen, still alive in 1396.
- Dirck knight, see separate chapter below.
- Goyart who had a son Lord Henrik who was a priest in 1396.
- Herman married to Gloria – daughter of Lord Henrick van den Broeck canon at St Oedenrode – they had two children Goyart and Katelijn. After the death of Herman, Gloria marries Dirck van Emmichoven. Katelijn marries Goyart van Ghemert, the daughter of Dirck van Ghemert and Sophie – the daughter of Wouter Spierinc van Dinther.
- Jan, provost (investiet) at the church of Braest. He had died by 1389 and left a bastard son Goyart.
- Liesbeth, first married to Goyart van Erpe. They had 4 children: Leonis, Govart, Dircxke and Katelijn. In 1396 Liesbeth is mentioned as the wife of Willem van Ouden (son of Ruther van Ouden, Lord of Honsoort). Katelijn marries Jan van Dommelen (son of Boudeken Kistzoon van Eyndhoven).
- Ysenbeel married to Dirck Stercke van Breda, they have a son Peter van Nedervenne.
In a separate charter – in relation to the horse mill (rosmolen) in Oss – Jan van Dinther is mentioned as a grandchild of Goyart van Os – he was the son of Dirck van Dither and Aleyt van Os. Jan was married first to Luitgart Petersdochter van Erpe and the 2nd time with Geertruud daughter of Roelof die Gruyter
Another person that gets mentioned in relation to the van Os family is Katelijn a daughter of Aernt Heyme, who marries Hubert van Ghemert. They had a house in Dinther: “t geseet ter Haghe”. In February 1387 he rents this property for 5 year to Albert Jansz. Heze, under the condition of the damage caused by the war (start of the first Gelre war) “conditie inde schade vanden oerloge”.
Terwaenen – Trawanen castle
There are rather few references to the family actually living in Oss. Goyart’s son Marcelis was, in 1374, named as the property owner (not given in fief) of the ‘open house’ in ‘ t Os op die palen’ (Oss at the border posts). He had received the rights to build (or strengthen) a small castle that could be used (open house) by the Duke of Brabant for the stationing of troops or for his own use in his fights against the Dukes of Gelre.
After Marcelis death his widow Sophie marries Goosen van Lienden. Later on she receives the right from Goyart’s grandchildren to use the house in Oss until her death.
During excavations in the 1990s the remnants of some of its foundations were recovered and this situated the castle Terwanen on the northern side of the Medieval town boundary. It had its own moat, which had poles in the middle to make its crossing even more difficult. It became also known as ‘Krakenburg’ (‘Creaking castle’ – perhaps indicating the condition is was in at the stage as it defence function became less important after the city was walled in 1399).
In 1381 the castle was in the hands of another son of Goyart, Dirck van Steenre van Os. There is also an interesting report from the 11 August 1387 that describes an attack on the castle by Gelre and the brave resistance provided by the baillif and the people of Oss. The defense was under the command of Lord Jan van Wittem, a bastard-son of John III Duke of Brabant. This could indicate that the Jonkers of Oss didn’t play an active role here.
Non of the Lords of Oss – who must lived around this time – are mentioned as occupants of the castle, a possible indication that by that time the family had already permanently moved to Den Bosch (to escape the ravages of war).
It is not known why the caste was named ‘Terwanen’. It is also the Roman name of a stronghold from the Celtic tribe the Morines who were conquered in 56BC by Caesar. That place is now situated in northern France. Wenne or waan is the old name of the local river now called Petite Lys.
As we will see below, a daughter of Marcelis and his wife Sophia, called Dircxke (born around 1360) married in 1394 Aert Stamelaert van Uden, magistrate (later Bailiff) of ‘s-Hertogenbosch, member of the Council of Brabant and the Duke’s Bailiff for the County of Cuijk. They inherited the property and the family privileges in Oss. The castle stays in this family until 1571, when through a female member of this branch the property came into the hands of Jonker Walraven van Erp. In 1707 it is the property of Theunis Hendrik Herpen, by that time – but most likely already much earlier – the property had been changed into a farm house known as ‘Behind the Eijckenboomgaard” (orchard of oak trees). Since 1832 the place was known as a bathhouse [4. De Werkende Mens, 16th edition, autumn 2010, p39]. As such it also appears on the famous Kuyper map of the City of Oss from 1867.
Lord Marcelis van Os
Marcelis was married to Sophie (and perhaps alsoto a Margriet). They had a daughter Dircxke. After Marcelis (sudden?) death probably around 1383/84 Sophie marries the Knight Goosen van Lienden. In 1394 – after Marcelis death – Sophie and Goosen arrange the marriage conditions for Dircxke with Aert van Tuyl. Dircxke is later recorded as being married to Aert Stamelert (see above) and Goyart
In 1376 –he was mentioned as a member of the Illustrious Confraternity of the Holy Virgin in Den Bosch (see: The High Middle Ages).
He was also a magistrate (schepen) in Den Bosch from 1373 till 1383. This indicates that already rather soon after their emergence as local Lords of Oss they no longer resided in the war ridden town and had moved away.
After the death of Marcelis the various properties and rights of the van Os family get divided by children and grandchildren from Goyart.
After his death the fishing rights were passed on to Marcelis’ daughter Dircxke (see below) and to her son Marcel van Uden. These rights were eventually passed on to the village of Maren in 1459 [5. Jan Cunen, Geschiedenis van Oss p 125].
Other members of the family – according to documents from 1408 and 1421 – do also retain a number of other properties around Oss; they had land in Scadewijc, Hoelbeemden, Langhbrake, Huysmans Beemt, Corenbeemt, Ussen, and at a few other places that are not more geographically defined.
A son of the great- granddaughter of Marcel and Sophia is possibly the rather famous Pieter van Os who together with his son wrote a chronicle over the history of Den Bosch and the Mayory. He also describes the attack from Charles van Gelre on Oss in 1497 (See: Oss in the midst of the Gelre Wars). Pieter is also the only one within this branch that is mentioned with the title Jonker van Os.
In the painting Ecce Home, probably from a pupil of Jheronimus Bosch the Coats of Arms of one of the branches of the Lords of Os. The painting depicts him on one panel, together with St Peter and on the other one his wife Hendrixke van Langel with St Catherina. The backside of the panels depict his family in law France van Langel and Heilwig van der Rullen with their children. Pieter might have been a donor or commissioner of the painting. The triptych is in the Museum for Fine Arts in Boston, USA.
Lord Dirck van Os
He was married to Bela a daughter of the by that time deceased Goyart van Erpe (see above).
He is mentioned as Dirck van Steenre (see Bronkhorst information above) he was married to Lady van Beel (van Os). She was widowed by 1382.
From her marriage with Dirck a son was born: Goyart van Os (his name is mentioned in charters between 1381 and 1397). This Goyart van Os also had 5 sisters:
- Aleyt (mentioned 1390-1397) most likely married to Dirck van Dinther before she becomes a beguine,
- Theodorica/Dircxke (mentioned 1381-1397) – she was married to Goyart son of Willem van Beest. Goyart van Beest was the Bailiff (Schout) of the Quarter Maasland (the Mayory of Den Bosh was divided in four administrative quartes) and Schout of Oss, as mentioned in a charter from 1401. Goyart’s son Dirck is mentioned in a charter from 1441.
- Lana (mentioned 1386-1397) she was married to Sander van Oy,
- Luitgard (mentioned 1390-1399) married with Henrik van Baecx den Jonge; and
- Meynsa (mentioned 1384), nun in Binderen.
In 1387 Bela remarried with Emond van Zoelen.
The following info on the Family van Panhedel van Os is disputed . The information used here comes from various sources but there are questions regarding some of the interpretations and the links that have been made by the researchers of that information. Large parts of the information is correct. The information will be updated once there is more clarity about this. Further research is taking place.
Panheel van Os
We know little of the origins of this family, there name suggests that they came from Panheel. Pol and Panheel formed a very small county within the Duchy of Limburg, their overlords were the Lords of Horn.
From the 3rd generation onward the name Panheel gets dropped and they are known as van Oss. This branch continues to approx 1700.
It is likely that there must be a link between with the ‘native’ branch as they shared property, fishing and milling rights.
So far no direct relationship between the two families has been established.
Large parts of the genealogy below is taken from the information held at the Koninglijke Bibliotheek in Brussel – Fonds Houwaert MSS II nr. 6601.
Willem van Panhedel van Os (1235 )
Perhaps because of services delivered during the Battle of Woeringen (see Duchy of Brabant), Willem van Panheel (Panhedel) received property in fief from Duke Jan van Brabant in Oss. In 1289 Duchy of Limburg was annexed by Brabant.
Willem was born in 1235 in Panheel, he calls himself van Panhedel van Os.
He had two sons Herman and Jan.
Herman Willemzn van Oss (1300 – 1341)
He was born around 1300 and died in Vueren in 1341.
Herman was married with Ida a bastard daughter of Duke Jan van Brabant.
100 year war
We come across Herman within the context of the 100 year war. Dirck Flours van Dinther was a page and on 22 April 1339 he declares that he has received from Duke John III of Brabant an amount of 3 livres payed by Herman van Os and Jan van Meldert for his participation with a horse and harness in the war between England and France. In this war the Duke of Brabant fought on the ride of the King of England.
He is in 1329 mentioned as the chamberlain of the Duke in 1338 a Herman a steward of the Duke. Some time later his nephew Alart van Oss is mentioned in the same position [x. L’adminsitration Ducal , Mina Martens, Brussels 1954].
They also owned the property ‘Hertogen Hofstad in Den Bosch (see above).
He was in 1339 was a signature to a charter to confirm the ‘eternal’ alliance between Brabant and Flanders.
Jan Willemzn van Panhedel van Os
Jan was born in 1270 died before 1332.
In a charter (Bossche Protocollen) from 1395(?) Herman sells his mills in Heesch and Oss to his brother Jan, who than leases the mills back to Herman.
According to a charter from 1402, Jan had the milling bans of Oss and Heesch, which had been passed on to his son Herman.
Willem van Oss (1315 – 1395)
He became a citizen of Brussels (1322). In 1353, at the age of 38 he married Catheleijne Artsdr. Van Rotselaer. They had the following children:
- Margriet, she marries Alaert de Cliever and later Jan van Coudenberghe (mentioned in 1405)
- Alard (see below),
- Cathelijne (mentioned under age in 1350)
- Jan (see below),
- Herman (see below).
Alard van Oss (1335 – )
(son of Willem x Rotselaer)
Alard was the Receiver of Taxes for the Duke of Brabant (1351-1358) and the Dean of the St Peter in Leuven. He was also the owner of the property ‘’s-Hertogen Hofstad in ‘s Hertogenbosch (see above).
Alard also had the milling bans of Oss, Heesch, Berchem and Nistelrode.
He was again mentioned in relation to the fishing rights the family had and he also had the pumping rights for the waterworks in the region. In 1556 these rights were owned by Lady Hadewich van Oss (daughter of Jonker Willem, see below)
Alard had the following bastards:
- Alard Receiver of Taxes for the Duke of Brabant, citizen of Brussels (1352) he marries Hugo van Amstel, widowed in 1377,
- Widekinus he became the next owner of ‘s-Hertogen Hofstad, he marries around 1356 Lady Beatrix Claesdr van Berckel.
They had the following children:
- Lady Aleyt van Oss (mentioned in 1446)
- Alard van Oss, priest in Afligem – he had a bastard son by Lijsbeth van Bornhem, named Jan van Oss
- Jan van Oss, citizen of Brussels (1359)
- Catherina van Oss married to Frans van Hiningen (mentioned in 1374)
Herman van Os (1364 – 1390)
(son of Willem x Rotselaer)
He was married with Elisabeth van Hertewijck and the couple lived in ‘s-Hertogen Hofstad (see above). They had a son Willem.
Willem van Oss
(son of Herman)
In a charter of 1427 Willem was mentioned as, at least, past owner of his house within the walls of Oss and the house ‘s-Hertogen Hofstad.
He was emancipated in 1442 and had the following children:
- Lady Elisabeth van Oss (Order of Saint Clare Brussels -1444)
- Herman van Os marries Lady Catherina (daughter of Floris Hermans).
They had the following children:
- Floris van Oss, mentioned In Antwerp in 1517
- Cathelijne van Os married to Jan Janszn van de Kerckhove, remarries Andries van Vorsthuijs (1446)
- Lady Margriet marries Jan Conrneliszn Meert. They had the following chileren: Margriet, Katelijn, Jan, Joris en Aleit
- Elisabeth van Oss marries Willem van Amstel
Jonker Jan van Oss (1345-)
(son of Willem x Rotselaer)
He is the first mentioned Jonker . Perhaps the reason for his title was the fact that he married Lady Joanna van Brabant (bastard daughter of Jonker Jan van Brecht, vassal of the Duke of Brabant).
They had 3 children:
- Willem (see below).
- Margriet van Panhedel van Oss marries Gerard Janszn van Calsteren (mentioned in 1439); and
- Dirck ( mentioned in 1477). He has a son Dirck van Oss, vassal of the Duke (mentioned in 1552, died before 1559)
Here the family splits with Willem‘s family pursuing interests in Brussels and beyond and Dirck’s family eventually returning to Oss (see below).
Jonker Willem van Oss (Jan’s son)
(son of Jan x Johanna)
Willem married to Lady van Polanen van de Leck. He was a Zwanenbroeder (Swan Brother) of the Illustrious Brotherhood of Our Blessed Lady. He died before 1465. He had a son Willem.
Jonker Willem van Oss (Willem’s son)
Jonker Willem he was also a Swan Brother and a citizen of Brussels (1464). In 1491 he rents his mill in Heesch for three years for 50 mudden (hectolitres) – measured according the weights of Oss – of rye to the Miller Zeger Peters. He dies in 1512.
He was married to Agnes van Uden, daughter of Henric van Uden, schepen in Den Bosch (1476) and Lady Hadewich de Louw. Their epitaph was on a stained window in the Our Lady of the Brothers Church in Brussels. They had two children:
- Hadewich married Philips Hinckaert, Lord of Lille, schepen and burgomaster , chancelor of Philips van Castille and churchwarden of the St Guduke in Brussles. She had a house in the St Jorisstraat in Den Bosch and she had the pumping rights in Oss, Heesch, Nistelrode and Berchem. She died in Brussels in 1543.
- Willem van Oss was knighted by Charles V in 1549 most probably during the activities of the Pragmatic Sanction, whereby all nobles of the newly reorganised 17 United Provinces had to pledge their allegiance to Charles’ son the later Emperor Philip II. Willem was also part of the delegation of nobles during the Blijde Intocht in Leuven in 1549 and the inauguration of Philip II in 1556. He married first Lady Catherine van der Keelen (dies before 1554) and remarries Anne daughter of Dierc de Roever.
Jonker Jan van Oss (1345-)
He is the first mentioned Jonker . Perhaps the reason for his title was the fact that he married Joanna van Brabant (bastard daughter of Jonker Jan van Brecht, vassal of the Duke of Brabant).
They had 3 children Willem, Margriet and Dirck.
Here the family splits with Willem‘s family pursuing interests in Brussels and beyond and Dirck’s family eventually returning to Oss (see below).
Herman was a Zwanenbroeder (Swan Brother) of the Illustrious Brotherhood of Our Blessed Lady and a citizen of Brussels he was married to Agnes van Uden. They had two children Willem and Hadewich (Hadewich had the pumping rights in Oss, Heesch, Nistelrode and Berchem.
Willem van Oss was knighted by Charles V in 1549 most probably during the activities of the Pragmatic Sanction, whereby all nobles of the newly reorganised 17 United Provinces had to pledge their allegiance to Charles’ son the later Emperor Philip II. Willem was also part of the delegation of nobles during the Blijde Intocht in Leuven in 1549 and the inauguration of Philip II in 1556.
Dirck van Oss (1410-1472)
( son of Jan and Joanna).
Here we have a again a jonker mentioned to be the owner of Terwanen, as was his son Jan. He was married twice with Lady Chrispijn Jan Berwouts and Lady Henricke Jan die Jonghe. He had 7 children: Henric, Jan (jonker), Dirrick, Reinier, Kathelijn, Nicolaas and Marie.
In 1466, an intriguing promise was made by the magistrates of Oss that reads as follow. If Dirck van Oss, or one of his children, or one of the children of Willem Hermanszoon van Oss, receives damage to body or good, caused by or because of Gijsbrecht van Aemstel, Dirck will receive an amount of 100 Arnhem guilders.
His daughter Kathelijn owned ¾ of the property ‘Amstel’.
During the Gelre wars, many of the members of the van Oss family moved from Den Bosch to Brussels and Antwerp were many of them also had senior functions in government and church related positions.
Jan van Oss (1440 -1508)
This son of Dirck is important as he is the link to the jonkers who eventually go back to Oss. Around 1490, he had two sons Dirrick and Jan.
He is most likely mentioned as a witness in a charter of 1476 in relation to property transactions of Hendrick Gijsbert Emonts Jansz.(van Dinther), son of Gijsbert Emondsz. van Dinther [x. Kwartierstaat van Dinther – http://www.nicovandinther.nl/kwartierstaten/Genealogie-van-Dinther-Oss.HTM]
Back to Oss – Dirrick van Oss (1490 – 1557)
In a charter of 1552 issued by Emperor Charles V, Dirrick is given his properties and right in fief of the Duke of Brabant. He had three sons: Reinier, Caerle and Dirck.
It looks like that his sons and grandson are returning to Oss. From here on we do see their names reappearing in the archives. In later history they are called the ‘Reinier” branch (Dirrick’s eldest son), possibly indicated that it was him who established the link with Oss.
Bailiffs and magistrates
Several members of the Jonkers also held senior position in Oss and the Maasland Quarter. Jan Cunen lists them [7. Jan Cunen Geschiedenis van Oss pp 165, 166]
- Rombout (was this perhaps Reinier?) bailiff of the Quarter in 1494
- Rijnder van Oss was magistrate in the city in 1556 and 1562. He was also a churchwarden.
- His sons Cornelis and Nicolaas held similar positions in 1599 and early in the 17thcentury. Cornelis lived at the Graafsche Poort.
- Nicolaas son, Jonker Johan became in 1626 the owner of Terwanen and also was a magistrate in 1628, 1641, 1642 and in 1653 he was acting town clerk.
- Dirrick’s other son Dirck was a magistrate in 1601, 1605,1606,1609 and 1610.
- Wouter Franszn van Oss was a magistrate in 1687, 1688, 1696, 1697 and 1698.
After what most probably has been the worst plague attack in the history of Oss which happened in 1599, Jonker Nicolaas (Poll – he was married to Aleyt van dePoll) was send to the Treasurer in Den Bosch with a request to exempt Oss from paying the extra war taxes that were required to finance the war between the Dutch Republic and the Spaniards. The situation deteriorated further during the following years as the war was now fought along the river Maas, with a devastating effect on Oss and its region [8. Jan Cunen Geschiedenis van Oss pp 165, 166].
In a document from 1607 Jenneke, Dirck’s daughter (son of Dirrick) writes that she has lost all her papers in those troublesome years [9. Jan Cunen Geschiedenis van Oss p 55].
Jonker Dirck (a son of Dirrick’s thrird son Caerle) and jonker Jan are also mentioned in 1642 when they were send to Herpen, where the Catholic Pastor Septius had fled, during the period that Brabant was occupied by the Dutch Republic and the roman catholic faith had been forbidden to be practised. The accompanied a chaplain to Herpen [10. Jan Cunen Geschiedenis van Oss p 56].
Dirck is also the first known jonker to live in the Boschpoort (1645). His son Caerle sells in 1678 his half of the Bosschpoort. However, this was rebuked the following year by Wouter Franszn van Oss the husband of Lady Helena van Oss (her family line goes back to Herman van Oss x Ida van Brabant). This issue wasn’t settled until 1717, when this couple died without heirs.
Nicolaas (Poll) had 7 children and many more grandchildren most of them were born in Oss and many stayed there and eventually were buried here. His son Goyart (1626 – 1666) had 6 children. His daughter Theodora was in 1710 the last member of the Jonker family to live in the Graafsche Poort. When her brother Adriaen died in April 1720 this branch of the family died out as was noted in a charter dated 14th December 1737 [11. Jan Cunen Geschiedenis van Oss p 147].
Dirk van Oss – VOC
Another interesting member of this family is Dirk Van Os, a partner in the reclamation of the Beemster (Holland) and co-founder of the Dutch East Indian Company (VOC).
According to the research from Cor van Osch, his family tree goes back to Goyart and Dirksken’s son Gielis born around 1330 and canon in Aachen. From here the tree is as follows: Jan (1365 – 1431), Dirk (1398 – 1477), Willem (B.1431 – bailiff Moergestel), Gillis (b.1479). His son Dirck(the elder) was baptised on 12-4-1501 and married to Maria Docter. This couple had 11 children of which Dirck was born in Antwerp on 13-5-1556 but most likely moved with thousands others to Amsterdam after the Siege of Antwerp in 1585. Dirck married on 30 January 1588, in Amsterdam, Margriet van der Piet. The couple had 10 children, from one of them also called Dirck (1590-1668) a painting survives which most probably has been painted by Rembrandt.
He is also the oldest known shareholder in the VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie – Dutch East India Company) – his signature is on a share from 1609. He was also a shareholder in a merchant fleet of 140 ships loaded with grain which – on Christmas eve 1593 – were waiting near the island of Texel for a favourable wind to sail to Italy. A massive storm led to one of the largest shipping disasters of the Netherlands; 40 ships were thrown of their anchors and sank, over a thousand lives were lost. The Dutch trade on the Mediterranean was for 50% in the hands of the recent immigrants from Antwerp. Despite the large losses, a year later, Dirck was still mentioned as one of the largest business men of Amsterdam.
Dirck’s brother was also a partner in the reclamation of the Beemster and a burgomaster of Amsterdam.
Dirck also features in a book published by Geert Mak in 2009. [6. Geert Mak and Russell Shorto, De vergeten geschiedenis van Hudson, Amsterdam en New York, 2009]
Heren van Heeswijk van Oss
Than there is a third element that brings in the Lords van Heeswijk. A village 15 kilometers southwest from Oss. There is a Hubertus van Heeswijk whose name in 1235 gets registered as a nobleman and vassal of Duke Henry van Brabant. Perhaps he was a part owner of the vassalage oh Heeswijk under Duke Henry I, in 1235?
His coat of arms is identical to the one used by the other members of the van Os family mentioned above; three front facing ox heads in his case with a straight beam divided the two top heads from the one below. Albertus van Heeswijk (born around 1370) married Jacoba van Os a daughter of Jacob van Os [12. Brabantse Leeuw 1957] The coat of arms of Albertus is the same without the beam. However, it is argued that this information dates to a much later period and that mistakes have been made in relation to the Coats of Arms. This would indicate that there was no direct link between the two families.
The first known Lord van Heeswijk is Amelricus he is first mentioned around 1150 donating land to the recently established (1132)Abbey of Berne (near Zaltbommel). In 1248 the village of Heeswijk becomes part of the property of the abbey.
There are some indications that the van Heeswijk family originates from the Lords of Megen [14. Taxandria edition 1897]. Some of the land is held in fief by the Lords of Kuyc. This all fits in with information provided in the separate chapters on these two families as well as the van Amstel family.
The family also gets mentioned in relation to the Battle of Woeringen, Richold van Heeswijk had captured the page of Dirk van Batenburg who was later handed over to Jan van Cuijk
In the 2nd half of the 13thcentury the village of Heeswijk and half of that of Dinther was sold by Jan van Bentheim to Lord Dirk Rover, who in turns sells it to Jan’s son Walraven van Bentheim, who was married to Agnes van Heeswijk the daughter of Dirk II. Jan had doied before 1382 and Walraven between 1386 and 1396.
In following years we also see Duke Jan van Megen act as Lord of Heeswijk as such he in 1330 sells property to the recently in Brabant arrived Lord van Amstel .
Walraven’s son Jan fought with Wenceslaus Duke of Brabant against Flanders in 1359. This brought him in conflict with Gelre who ransacked his castle in Heeswijk in 1371/72. In 1387 Heeswijk gets sold to the knight Willem van de Aa. In 1398 the village of Heeswijk gets ransacked again by Gelre and in that year we see Hendrik van de Lek as the new Lord of Heeswijk at this time also the castle is mentioned specifically.
The title literally means young nobleman and started to emerge in the 2nd half of the 14th century. In Brabant the title of Jonker was given to a bannerlord who was not knighted. Bannerlord (in Dutch: baanrots or baanderheer) refers to the top layer of the nobility, often indicating that they belong to the ancient nobility and as such were placed in the hierarchy above the knighthood. Famous bannerlords include: Jan Lord of Arkel, Engelbert of Nassau Lord of Breda, Jan II of Wezemaal Margrave of Bergen op Zoom. There is sometimes also a link between Jonkers and Barons (the Lord of Breda also used the title of Baron – linked to his judicial right of appeal). By the 17th century the title Jonker started to disappear when those holding this title started to change it to Baron. The title of bannerlord refers to the time that banners started to be used to identify the Lords in times of war. The bannerlord was allowed to use a square banner in contrast to the lower nobility who used the triangle shaped banner.
Most of the genealogy information here has been abstracted from research done by Cor van Osch, which has been published in his book “Geneologisch onderzoek van toen en heden van het geslacht met de naam van Osch” as well as subsequent information from his further research.
For a while at least, from Herman onwards the name Panhedel gets dropped. They had three children:
- Govert (Goyart) born approx. 1335 married with Mechteld van Bronckhorst. They had a daughter Liesbeth.
- Jan was born around 1335 and had one known child Jan born around 1370.