Germany Emsburen and Ahlde (Niedersachsen)
A Johan Budde was baptised here in 1600. The church keeper of Emsburen, notes when Joan Ludwig Budde from Wietmarschen (who later on migrates to America) marries a Maria Bulte who was born there, that these Buddes came from this town. It is therefore possible that one of the members of the Budde family from Emsburen (Eilart’s father?) moved to Wietmarschen, where my family comes from?
Records from Emsburen dating back to 1560 indicate that the Budde family did not live here at that time. So it looks like that the origin of the family neither lays in Wietmarschen nor in Emsburen. Thus the quest will continue. The Budde name is also recorded in many other cities, villages and farming communities in the area. Just to name a few: Lingen, Emsdetten, Isendorf, Beesten, Plankorth, Brockhousen, Bramhar, Brogbern, Birgte, Rheine and Riesenbeck.
History of Ahlde
The Buddes lived in Ahlde, a farming community a kilometre south of Emsburen. I visited Ahlde in 1999. The community at that time had grown from only a few farmers around 900, 15 in the 16th century, and 30 in the 17th century to around 140 farms at present. In 1790 there were approx 50 people in Ahlde, now the number is around 500. To my surprise I did find the Buddenhof, the original family home. Currently Ida and Hans Hermeling live on the farm (see below). Hans informed me that the original house had been situation a little bit further away from its current position. There is a hill behind the current farm, which of course would have been a good site in earlier times.
In 890 Ahlde was mentioned as Aludwide, in a tax document from the Benedictines Monastery of Werden on the river Ruhr. The Friesian missionary Liudger established this monastery in 799. Ahlde, namely the farms of Waddic and Hruodleb, is mentioned in the various documents of this monastery until 1032.
Liudger and Emsburen
Similar to Munster, the parish of Emsburen was established during the christianisation of the region in 792 by Liudger. Who in 805 became the first bishop of Mimigernaford (Munster). The later canonised bishop is still the local church patron. He was born in Utrecht in 744. Charles the Great granted him the royal court of Emsburen.
A few centuries later, we come across Ahlde in tax documents from the Bishop Monarchy Munster (they bought the Werden properties in 1256); the Monastery Sünte Marienrode in Wietmarschen (since 1240); and the Counties of Tecklenburg (since 1256) and Bentheim – Steinfurt(1352). The Freibrief from Enneken (see below) indicates that the Budde farm belonged to the Count of Bentheim. In a document dated 18th June 1827 the Budde farm is listed as a ‘Drittelerben’ – inheritance of a third of the original property. In a listing of Ahlder farmers from 1560, 16 full-heirs, two half-heirs and one kötter is listed. Budde is not one of them. In 1685 there are 12 full-heirs, 5 half-heirs, 11 kötters and tenants. Budde is listed under ‘kötters with horses’.
The Buddes in the history of Ahlde
As elsewhere, Ahlde also contains many fieldnames that would guide people through the area. The area where the Budde’s lived was also known as the ‘Immhoffken’ (bee-cottage). This was preserved in a note from the 19th century: “Bi Budde in ‘n Immegoar’n dor is wat loss, dor is Onkle Hermann an’t Imme korv’n”. (At Budde in the bee-garden, there is something going on, uncle Hermann is ‘hiving’ bees).
Under the feudal system, farmers were not allowed to hunt on their land, without specific permission from the landowner. At regular intervals the landlord would go on hunting trips. There is a record of such a trip. From the 1st till the 10th of September 1718 the Count of Bentheim with his party set out on such a trip. He stayed in Emsburen on the 7th and the 8th and as recorded he celebrated here the holy day of the birth of Maria (8 September). As was custom farmers were recruited for special services, which had to be provided to the landowner under the system of serfdom. Together with three other farmers Budde (Everhard ?) had to make himself available when the Count hunted in Ahlde.
In 1768 Maximilian Friederich, bishop king of Munster ordered the foundation of a fire-insurance within the diocese-monarchy. For this purpose it became necessary to allocate house numbers throughout his jurisdiction. The Budde farm, at that time occupied by Jacob Budde (Kefing) and his wife Anna, was somewhere between 1785 and 1788 allocated number 5. Two hundred years later, this numbering system is still in use.
In order to cultivate the land, the use of sods was essential, and as we will see under Wietmarschen from the 17th century onwards, ongoing clearing started to have an diminishing effect on the communal heath and peat grounds. A stricter regime was needed to regulate the use of these lands. In 1835 the Ahlder Mark (common heath grounds) were divided in six areas and each group of farmers were allocated land they could use to get their sods from. The Buddes belonged with six other farmers to the area known as ‘Borger’. The Ahlde Mark was finally divided in 1890 and the Buddes acquired their allocated share. The invention of fertiliser dramatically altered the way farming continued into the 20th century. In Ahlde a farmers-cooperative was established which amongst other things bought fertiliser and fodder in bulk. The Buddes were part of the association until 1921 when Hermann Budde (Hermeling) left the organisation.
Enneken free in 1680
Around 1600 Johann Budden was baptised in Emsburen. He married Fenne Alleke on 24th May 1626.
On the 25th of December 1656 Joan und Euphemia Anna Budde were married in Emsburen. In the autumn of 1657 Ahlde suffered from a severe plague epidemic in which also Euphemia died. Two and a half year later Johan remarries with Euphemia Alleidis.
The fact that in these marriages three time a Johan and Euphemia appears is causing some genealogical problems. There are records of three baptisms, mentioning the names of these parents.
- Adelheid in 1626;
- Anna in 1656; and
- Adelheid in 1659.
The first mentioned Adelheid obviously is the daughter of the first mentioned parents who married in the same year as she was born. The above list however doesn’t mention another child from this marriage, most probably another son Joan, mentioned in the marriage of 1656.
It looks like that the sibling Anna mentioned above is the same Enneken mentioned in the Freibrief below. Most probably she is the daughter of the mother that died soon after her birth. Adelheid (1659) could thus be the daughter out of the 2nd marriage (Johan x Euphemia Alleidis)
Freibrief (passport) Enneken Budde – 1680
Ihre Hochgräfliche Excellenz zu Bentheim, Tecklenburg, Steinfürth und Limburg habe, heut dato unten gemelt dero aigenhörigen Weilandt, joan budden und Fenne Aleke eheliche tochter Enneken budde , kirkspels Embsbühren bawrschaft ahlde, weilen derselben Mutter frey gewesen und sich aigen gegeben nach hiesiger Landtogewohnheit, hingegen frey gelassen also und dergestalt, daß gedachte Enneke sich hinführo, in waß Standt und Leben es ihr am nützlichen sein wird soll mögen begeben, auch aller freyheit, gleich andere freye Leuthe geniessen, wobey dieselbe jeder Zeit gegen Männiglichen oberheitlich geschützet werden soll, ir so kundt handtzeichend und decretet, bentheimb den Einunddreitzigste octobris tausendsechshundertachtzig
Graf zu Bentheim
His High-count Excellency at Bentheim, Tecklenburg, Steinfurth and Limburg has at this date indicated the legitimate daughter Enneken Budde from the late Joan Budde and Fenne Alleke parish Emsburen, farming community Ahlde as her mother was free is, she went into serfdom according to regional custom, because of this given freedom.
Also, that in that way that the before mentioned Enneke in future in whatever rank or position as she seeks most useful to her is allowed to go, as other free people. At the same time she is at any time protected against anyone from the Administration above, as is here sealed and declared Bentheim 30 October 1680
Count of Bentheim
From Budde to Hermeling
The next Budde that we have come across in Ahlde, is Hermann Budde married to Adelheid. With the help of Ingeborg Hermeling (niece of Ida and Hans Hermeling – mentioned below) we know that his son Everhardt Budde marries on 9th April 1709 Euphemia (Genoveva) Werning. They had three children. Margaretha (11/2/1712), Christina (24/12/1715) and Gerard Hermann (24/11/1718). In 1764 both Everhardt (18th August) and Euphemia (7th October) die.
Frank Stegging has made an interesting assumption. His father is a descendent of a Margaretha Bodden from”Oude Kerspel Burend”. He thinks that this might be the Margaretha mentioned above. Burend could be Emsburen. She married to a Herman Steunebrink from Beuningen (near Denekamp in Twente).
Gerhard takes, already in 1743, over his father’s farm. He first marries 34-year-old Aleidis Alfes, however, she dies on 20th September 1751. They had one child Euphemia (born on 5th November 1743). Gerhardt remarries on 19th of April 1752 with Euphemia Schmeing also from Emsburen-Ahlde. Their son Everhard Johann Budde was born on February 1, 1753. His brother Joann Bernd was born on 10th June 1760. Gerhard dies on 23 April 1791 ten years after Euphemia who died on 15 December 1781.
Buddes in the army of the Prince-Bishop of Münster
Unteroffiziere und Gemeine in der Fürstbischöflich-Münsterischen Armee von 1775 bis zu ihrer Auflösung. (Non commissioned officers and soldiers in the Army of the prince bishop in Münster) -Source: Vol. 46/1988 in Beiträge zur Westf. Familienforschung
Bernd Budde 1762 in Emsbüren/Münster, profession: catholic from 1780 (Infanterie-Regiment graf Schaumburg-Lippe/Finck) -1785/86 soldier not married – perhaps the same as below. Soldier Bernd Budde 1782 Lüdinghausen/Münster catholic 1800 march 31 (Mousquetier Kompagnie Hauptmann Ernst) Henr. Budde 1765 Emsdetten s. 561 perhaps the same as the other two below Henr. Budde 1765 in Seppenrade /Münster, prof. cath., 1763 April ( Inf. Reg.Graf Schaumburg-Lippe/Finck Leibkompagnie) – 1785/86 soldier Henr. Budde 1764 in Emstek or Emsdetten/Münster, prof. cath. not married, soldier, 1781 – 1783/84
Everd took over the farm and in 1772 married Anna Maria Lemming, from the same community. He died only one year later at the age of 20, on April 24, four days after the birth of his son Johann Gerhard, who sadly died only 107 days later. Anna Maria remarried on 20th of July 1773 with Jacob Kefing. According to the feudal traditions he took on the name Budde (farm) and their 8 children also take this surname. Records indicate that the family bought themselves free in 1803. This is several years before law officially ended the feudal system of serfdom.
An interesting, but sad, detail here involves the seventh child of his second marriage, Bernhard Heinrich Budde, born on 25 August 1786. He marries in 1809 in Emsburen with Christina Honekamp. On the 7th of July that year their son Bernhard Jacob (Bernd) is born. A year later his mother dies and in 1812 his father remarries with Anna Margaretha Silies. She dies in 1825 and Bernd remarries for the third time, that same year, with Margaretha Rotting. Being one of the youngest children of the family Bernhard did not stay on the Budde farm but had to move out and became a Heuermann (tenant) in Gansfortheuer in the farming community of Drievorden, east of Emsburen. His first son (from the Budde/Honekamp marriage) Bernd Jacob moves to Ootmarsum, where he marries Johanna Groothuis.. However, Bernd doesn’t stay long here. He moves on – this time, in 1845, along with his father, stepmother (Rotting) and stepsister Euphemia Catharina to the USA. Around the same time several of the Buddes in Wietmarschen also moved to the New World.
The Budde farm in Emsburen was taken over by Bernhard Everhard Budde (the first son of Kefing/Lemming, born on 10 August 1774). He married in 1811 a Maria Margaretha Adelheid Botterschulte. . This couple extended the living area of the farm in 1832. The enlarged fireplace received a new chimney, which is still in place. It contains a foundation stone with the date and the names of the owners. Bernhard died in March 1855, a year after his wife. They had six children, of which 4 died as infants. The 2nd child Johan Hermann Jacob born on 3rd of February 1814, marries in 1842 Margaretha Aleid Poling from Mehringen. They had five children, the eldest Anna Aleid (born 15/12/1848) marries on 13 November 1877 Johan Herman Hermeling, he takes on the name of the farm.
As was custom upon marriage of the heir, the parents as well as any unmarried daughters would continue to work and stay on the farm, for which they would receive usufruct. In interesting detail is that when the Anna and Johan took over the farm a contract was made up which conditions attached regarding the care of Anna’s parents. They included: board and residence; clothing; health-care and for their assistance on the farm they would annually receive 60 Mark, the same conditions applied for Anna’s sisters living on the farm. They also would receive, upon marriage, a complete trousseau and a sum of 1334 Mark.
Anna dies on 12th May 1886. They had two children Maria Aleid (born 5th September 1878) and Bernhard Hermann (born 24 September 1884) both continued to use the Budde name. Johann remarries on 8th of February 1887 with Maria Carolina Fisher from Lohne on the 8th February 1887. Further improvements to the farm and the buildings took place. In 1907 the stable was renovated to accommodate 9 cows and 4 bulls. Tradition has it that the stable, five years later, was hit by lightening. The other buildings did not receive a lot of damage, however a few calves were killed.
Johann and Maria had seven children some took the Budde name others broke with the feudal tradition and started to use the father’s name. Gerhard Hermann Hermeling (Budde) born on 20 November 1890 married on 25 June 1924 with Johanna Maria Adelheid Nie from Leschede. His half-brother Bernhard died during WW1 In France and Gerhard therefore, being the 2nd in line, took over the running of the farm. Gerhard and Maria built in 1936, the living area of the current house.
They had five children. Johannes (Hans) Hermann Hermeling was born on 31st May 1925, he now lives with his wife Ida Pieper on the old Budden farm. They renovated the barns and other buildings on the property. Until recently the farm was still in full occupation, however without any of their children interested to continue this line of business, it most probably will be the end of this 400 year old farming business.
The name Hermeling is not unfamiliar to the area. In 1390 ‘Hof Hermeling’ in Wietmarschen was according to the Urbar donated to the Monastery in Wietmarschen. The Urbar lists a Hermeling in 1460 as living in Schepdorf-Lohne. The first record I have come across that lists the family in Ahlde dates from around 1700. Heinrich Hermeling kötter (at?) Ketteler in Ahlde and separately Gesina Hermeling married to Rudolf Gravel.